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Linguistics and English Language

Eighteenth-Century English Grammars (ECEG)

The ECEG-database

ECEG is a new electronic resource for the study of the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition. More precisely, it is a database which compiles, for the first time, information about eighteenth-century English grammars as gathered from earlier bibliographies, collections and scholarly studies published over the last hundred years (1927-2008). In the fullest detail possible, ECEG includes not only bibliographic information about grammars but also biographical information about the grammar-writers. In addition, the bio-bibliographic information has been thoroughly coded by thematic fields such as year of publication, place of printing, target audience, gender and occupation of the author, etc.
ECEG was released in December 2010 in free electronic, user-friendly browsable and searchable format.

Although primarily addressed to scholars working in the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition, it is hoped that the bio-bibliographic nature of ECEG will benefit students and researchers in other disciplines such as literary studies (e.g. interest in the life of the grammar-writers) and historical studies (e.g. interest in book production and publication history). Ultimately, in the belief that this century "was a key phase in the development of the English language" (Görlach 2001: 12), it is also hoped that ECEG will contribute to the process of 'de-cinderellisation' of the eighteenth century in the history of English (see Pérez-Guerra et al. 2007: 12-13).

For more information contact María Esther Rodríguez-Gil & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza.


The ECEG-database project is financially supported by the British Academy Small Research Grant Scheme for the two-year period July 2008 - July 2010, now extended until December 2010.

We warmly thank Massimo Sturiale (University of Catania, Sicily) for his excellent organisation of the Second International Conference of New Perspectives on Prescriptivism(April 2006) - not only because it was an intellectually inspiring and socially enjoyable event, but also and mainly because it was there where this project took off.

ECEG was first presented at the Third International Conference of Late Modern English(Leiden, 31 August - 1 September 2007). We would like to thank the audience and, especially, Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade and Joan Beal for comments and suggestions.

Special thanks go as well to Robin C. Alston for his interest in the project, for generously sharing his data before publication and, above all, for his indefatigable efforts and diligent work over forty years.

We are immensely grateful to Antonio Torres for the design and technical support of the Microsoft Access database. His wise advice and attention to detail, his patience and good will have been key to the project. We thank Chris White for preparing the online version of the database (March - December 2010), and Marije van Hattum and Purva Bachani for temporary assistantship.

The scope of the database wouldn't have been possible without the generous help and collaboration of the staff at many libraries in the UK and America. Our gratitude to all of them.

  • England: The John Rylands, Deansgate and The University of Manchester Library; Birmingham Archives & Heritage, Birmingham Central Library; Durham Cathedral University Library, Durham; The Brotherton Library, Leeds University Library; Sydney Jones Library, University of Liverpool; The British Library, The Senate House Library, The London Institute of Education, and Victoria and Albert Museum Archives in London; Robinson Library, Newcastle University; Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham; Bodleian Library, Oxford; York Minster Library, York. 
  • Scotland: Library and Historic Collections, University of Aberdeen; National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; Glasgow University Library and The Mitchell Library in Glasgow. 
  • Ireland: National Library of Ireland and Trinity College, Dublin. 
  • Wales: The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. 
  • America: The Lilly Library, University of Indiana, Bloomington; Boston Public Library, Boston; Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA.; Honnold Library, Claremont Colleges, CA; Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham NC; Dartmouth College Library, Hanover NH; Archives and Special Collections, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln NE; Butler Library, Columbia University, New York; The New York Public Library, New York; The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Library Company Philadelphia, Philadelphia; American Antiquarian Society, Worcester Mass.; Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University Library, NH.

Aims and questions

In 1989, Charles Jones described the Late Modern English period as the "Cinderella of English historical linguistic study" (1989: 279), referring to the little scholarly attention given to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In recent years, however, this two-century period has received increasing attention, especially the eighteenth century and, more precisely, the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition (see Pérez-Guerra et al. 2007: 11-24). Since new research trends demand an update of the resources available to the growing research community, the time seems to be right for the ECEG-database. ECEG presents itself as a new data source in electronic format which contains up-to-date bibliographic information about eighteenth-century English grammars and biographical information about the grammar-writers.

In the preface to volume I of A Bibliography of the English Language from the Invention of Printing to the Year 1800, Robin C. Alston wrote the following:

This volume is devoted exclusively to English grammars written in English by Englishmen, Americans, and in one or two cases foreigners, as well as a very few grammars written in Latin by native speakers. [&] the following sorts of books are specifically excluded here: (1) spelling books containing abstracts of grammar; (2) miscellaneous works, epistolary manuals, &c., containing brief grammars; (3) dictionaries containing grammars; (4) polyglot grammars; (5) grammars of English written in foreign languages, as well as grammars written in Latin by foreigners and published abroad (Alston 1965: xiv; emphasis added).

Bearing in mind that Alston's bibliography, in particular the first volume, has been the starting point of most studies on the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition, it is to be expected that previous work might have been biased by his selection of 'distinct' English grammars. It thus follows that English grammars contained in other types of work, such as dictionaries and epistolary manuals, have often been overlooked in the literature, despite being listed in his other volumes (1966-1970). Several methodological questions arise: which are the eighteenth century grammars "specifically" selected in Alston (1965)?; which ones are "specifically" excluded?; has any other (earlier or later) scholar investigated those "excluded" grammars?; do scholars after Alston rely on him alone when selecting their primary sources?; which are the eighteenth-century grammars most commonly studied in this field?

In order to answer these questions, Alston (1965) was, evidently, the starting point of our project, but the scope needed to be broadened in time, sources and expectations. We had three aims in mind: (i) to revisit Alston's bibliographic work by covering not only his volume I (1965) but also other volumes in the series (1966-70), supplements (1973-74) and addenda (2008); (ii) to provide an up-to-date database by compiling bibliographic information from other reference sources published before and after Alston's work (1903-2010) in order to offer a more comprehensive account of the grammar-writing activities in the eighteenth century; and (iii) to include biographical information about the authors of the grammars as well.


The term 'English Grammar' in ECEG

The use of the term 'English grammar' in ECEG refers to a work which fulfils the following criteria:

  • It discusses at least the parts of speech and, except in a few elementary works, syntax too
  • It is written in English, including those which appear in bilingual/polyglot grammars
  • It is written by native speakers, except for a small number of naturalized English speakers (Sundby et al. 1991: 154)
  • It is printed in the British Isles (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland) and, to a lesser extent, some American colonies

Crucially for the understanding of the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition and grammar-writing practices, ECEG widens the scope of the term 'English grammar' beyond the traditional view of 'distinctness'. Not only does ECEG consider grammar books but also grammars prefixed to (i) dictionaries or encyclopaedias; (ii) works primarily concerned with general notions of language such as universal language, logic or philosophy of language; (iii) rhetoric and elocutionary treatises; (iv) letter writing manuals; (v) polyglot grammars (written for foreigners or Latin grammars); (vi) spelling-books; and (vii) books of exercises. There is, inevitably, a miscellany category, and we have been lucky to be able to consult some manuscripts too.


The process of compiling the ECEG-database consisted of three main phases:

  • Firstly, our starting point was to revisit Alston's Bibliography but not only his volume on 'distinct' English grammars (1965), as previous scholars have mostly - if not exclusively - done; we also aimed to revise later volumes, supplements, addenda and corrigenda up to the present day (see 1966-1970, 1974, 2008)
  • With a view to assessing to what extent scholars have relied on Alston's work, and also which scholars have (not) done so, the second phase consisted of extensive reading and selection of the literature in the field. This has allowed us to collect and collate a large number and variety of primary sources cited in the literature hitherto
  • The third phase involved a thorough process of thematic classification of the grammars cited in the literature. In order to do so, the primary sources were personally examined either by consulting materials available online (e.g. ECCO) or by following the traditionally laborious task of visiting libraries (e.g. the British Library, the National Library of Scotland)

The current version of ECEG (July 2012) consists of 323 grammars of the English language written in the time-span 1700-1800 by 275 different authors. The works have been drawn from:

  • Scholarly works: Leonard (1929), Poldauf (1948), Michael (1970, 1987), Vorlat (1975), Sundby et al. (1991) and Mitchell (2001)
  • Bibliographies: Kennedy (1927), Alston (1965-2008, vols. I-VIII, Supplement, Addenda), and Evans's American bibliography (1903-1959), along with the supplement volume by Bristol (1971)
  • Collections, facsimiles or reprints: Eighteenth-Century Collections Online, Evans Digital Collection of American Imprints, and Alston's (1967-73) facsimile reprint series English Linguistics 1500-1800

Information about the authors has been drawn, in addition to some of the above, from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online (ODNB 2004), the Lexicon Grammaticorum (Stammerjohann et al. 1996), the Universal Index of Biographical Names (Koerner 2008), and occasionally from historiographic surveys (e.g. Tieken-Boon van Ostade 1996, Rodríguez-Gil 2002, Cajka 2003, Percy 2003, Sturiale 2006, Navest 2008).

The comparative analysis across the reference sources allows us to filter the data in terms of (a) which works are more popular among contemporary scholars and (b) which works are mentioned only once.

Although ECEG contains a large number of fully coded records, a database like this can only be a reflection of what has survived mainly in the academic and research libraries, occasionally in smaller or specialised collections and, at times, in private hands. Notwithstanding these inescapable limitations, it is hoped that ECEG will provide comprehensive knowledge of English grammars, grammar-writers and grammar-writing practices in the eighteenth century.


The information gathered for each grammar has been thoroughly examined and broken down into sub fields, twenty-one altogether, in order to allow for specific searches, whether individual or combined. These are described in the table, thematically grouped in three major categories: Grammars (13), Authors (5) and Sources (3).

ECEG database


The ECEG-database was released in December 2010. ECEG is available in free electronic format for research and educational purposes. Please complete the access request form, available from the link below, and return it via e-mail to Nuria Yáñez-Bouza and María Rodríguez-Gil.

Signed-up users will be able to access the database via the link below. We kindly ask users to acknowledge the database in any published work that makes use of it; copyright is retained by Nuria Yáñez-Bouza and María Rodríguez-Gil (© 2010).

ECEG database

The contents of the database are available via two interfaces: Browse layout and Search layout. In addition, search results can be downloaded to the user's computer too. A user guide is available via the link below:

NB. For technical reasons, users are advised to access the database with the Firefox browser (and an up-to-date version of Java) rather than Internet Explorer. If Internet Explorer is preferred, recommended versions are IE8 or later.

Browse layout

The records (~entries) in the Browse layout are chronologically sorted, so that record 1 dates from 1700 and record 323 dates from 1800. Users can browse record by record, or jump to a particular record by clicking on the hyperlink and entering a number in the pop-up window.

The contents of each record are displayed in two sections:

  • top row, which is always visible, and
  • six clickable tabs, visible one at a time

Fields are arranged as below. An asterisk indicates that a drop-down value list is not available for that particular (sub-)field in the Search layout. (The Methodology section provides a detailed description of each field).

Top row:

  • Year
  • Edition
  • Title*


  • Name
  • Gender
  • Place of birth (Country, County, City)
  • Occupation (Category, Description*)
  • Biographical details*


  • Type of work
  • Divisions of grammar
  • Subsidiary contents
  • Target audience (Age, Gender, Instruction, Specific Purpose)


  • Place of printing (Country, County, City)
  • Printers*
  • Booksellers*
  • Price
  • Physical description


  • Number
  • Place
  • Description*


  • Reference sources
  • Holding library


  • Comments*


To search the database, click on Enter Search Criteria at the top of the page in the Browse layout.

The structure of the Search layout will mirror the Browse layout described above. Simply enter the search criteria into the boxes provided for each field. Users can search a maximum of 10 fields at a time--any 10 fields. A drop-down value list will appear in some fields giving sample values that can be searched for; a 'null' value is also available. (Some tips about operators are provided in the Show Search HELP tool.)

For combined searches (X and Y in the same record), the formula is =X&=Y

For instance, =Religion&=Education in the field 'Occupation' will show all authors whose occupation had something to do with religion AND education.

For multiple searches (either X or Y), the formula is X|Y

For instance, Scotland|England in the field 'Place of Birth' will show authors who were born either in Scotland or in England.

The number of hits ('search results') will display on the top-right of the page (e.g. 11 records). To view the records, click on Browse Search Results on the menu at the top of the page. Users may download data by clicking on Configure Download from the top menu. The downloadable file can be saved as .cvs or .xls (Excel) format.

To start a new search, simply click on Clear Search Criteria from the menu at the top of the Search layout. To view the database in full again, click on Return to Browse All.

If you have any queries, do not hesitate to contact us.


Reference line

ECEG Eighteenth-Century English Grammars database, 2010. Compiled by María E. Rodríguez-Gil (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain) and Nuria Yáñez-Bouza (The University of Manchester, UK).

Conference and seminar papers

  • 2007: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. A Bibliographic Approach to the Study of Eighteenth-Century English Grammars. Third International Conference on Late Modern English (LMEC3), Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Netherlands. 30 August - 1 September 2007. The presentation is available for download: A bibliographic approach to the study of 18th c. English grammars (MS PowerPoint, 459 KB)
  • 2008: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. 'A Disparate Band of Independent Entrepreneurs'? What the ECEG-database can tell us about eighteenth-century grammarians. 15th International Conference in English Historical Linguistics (ICEHL), Munich, Germany. 24-30 August 2008.
  • 2009: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. ECEG: Eighteenth-Century English Grammars Revisited. ICAME30, Lancaster University, UK. 27-31 May 2009. [Honourable mention: Prize for the best paper at the conference by a young researcher]
  • 2009: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. 'If Scotsmen and Irishmen were to 'fix a standard' & Attitudes to 'Correct' English by Eighteenth-Century Codifiers. Third International Conference on Prescriptivism: Prescriptivism and patriotism from nationalism to globalization, University of Toronto, Canada. 17-19 August, 2009.
  • 2010: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. Grammar Writing and Provincial Printing in the Eighteenth-Century British Isles. The Fourth Late Modern English Conference (LMEC4), University of Sheffield, UK. 27-29 May, 2010.
  • 2010: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. The ECEG Database - A Look into Eighteenth-Century Grammars and Grammar-Writers. The Lingwisticum Colloquium, University of Zürich, Switzerland. 4 November 2010.
  • 2010: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. The boom of English grammars in the eighteenth century. The need for the ECEG-database. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 14 December 2010.
  • 2010: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria & Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther. ECEG: a database of eighteenth-century English grammars and grammar-writers. Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Netherlands. 17-18 December 2010.
  • 2011: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria & Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther. New resources and approaches for the study of the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition: The ECEG-database. The Helsinki Corpus Festival – The Past, Present and Future of English Historical Corpora, Helsinki. 28 September – 2 October 2011. The document is available for download: ECEG Guidelines (PDF, 383 KB)
  • 2011: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. The ECEG-database online. 35th AEDEAN International Conference (Asociación Española de Estudios Anglo-Norteamericanos), University of Barcelona (Spain). 16-18 November 2011.
  • 2012: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria & Rodríguez-Gil, María E.. New resources new approaches: the eighteenth century and the ECEG-database. 4th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics. Jaén, Spain. 22– 24 March 2012.
  • Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. 2013. The Eighteenth-Century English Grammars database: a new resource for the history of the book and linguistic historiography. Presentation at the Digital Project Showcase organised during the SHARP Conference 2013: Geographies of the Book. Philadelphia, USA. 18-21 July 2013.

Publications and work in progress

  • 2009: Rodríguez-Gil, María Esther & Nuria Yáñez-Bouza. ECEG-database: A Bio-bibliographic Approach to the Study of Eighteenth-Century English Grammars. In Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade & Wim van der Wurff (eds.). Current Issues in Late Modern English, 141-170. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • 2011: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. Mapping Eighteenth-Century Grammarians in the British Isles (and beyond). In Terttu Nevalainen & Susan Fitzmaurice (eds.),How to Deal with Data: Problems and Approaches to the Investigation of the English Language over Time and Space. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, VARIENG).
  • 2011: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. The 'Glaring' Place of Prepositions: Grammar, Rhetoric and the Scottish Codifiers. Historiographia Linguistica 38(3), 255-292.
  • 2012: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria. Grammar Writing and Provincial Printing in the Eighteenth-Century British Isles. Transactions of the Philological Society 110(1), 34-63.
  • 2013, forthcoming: Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria & Rodríguez-Gil, María E. (eds.). English Grammar Writing in the Eighteenth Century. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), Special issue.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria & María Esther Rodríguez-Gil. The ECEG database. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Beal, Joan C. The place of pronunciation in eighteenth-century grammars of English. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Navest, Karljin & Anni Sairio. John Newbery's An Easy Introduction to the English Language (1745): Audience, origin, and the question of authorship. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Percy, Carol. J. Matlock's Young Ladies Guide to the Knowledge of the English Tongue (1715): Contextualising the first grammar of English for ladies. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Rodríguez-Álvarez, Alicia & María Esther Rodríguez-Gil. Common topics in eighteenth-century prefaces to English school grammars: An application of the ECEG database. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.
  • 2013, forthcoming. Tyrkkö, Jukka. Notes on eighteenth-century dictionary grammars. Transactions of the Philological Society 111(2), ed. by Yáñez-Bouza & Rodriguez-Gil.

NB. Please note that, given the ongoing nature of the project from 2006 to 2010, the data reported in different papers may vary slightly.


Selected references

The list of selected references is alphabetically ordered. Electronic sources and library catalogues are listed at the end.

  • ABC = Association of British Counties.
  • Aitken, A.J. 1995-96. James Murray, Master of Scots. Review of Scottish Culture 9, 14-34.
  • Alston, Robin C. 1965 1970. A Bibliography of the English Language from the Invention of Printing to the Year 1800. Volumes I -VIII. Leeds: Arnold & Son.
    • vol. I, English Grammars written in English and English Grammars written in Latin, 1965.
    • vol. II Polyglot Dictionaries and Grammars, 1967.
    • vol. III Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, Miscellaneous [&] Language in General, 1970.
    • vol. IV Spelling Books, 1967.
    • vol. V The English Dictionary, 1966.
    • vol. VI Rhetoric, Style, Elocution, Prosody, Rhyme, Pronunciation, 1969.
    • vol. VII Logic, Philosophy, Epistemology, Universal Language, 1967.
    • vol. VIII Treatises on Short hand, 1966.
  • Alston, Robin C. 1967-73. English Linguistics 1500-1800. Facsimile Reprint Series (EL). Menston: Scolar Press.
  • Alston, Robin C. 1973. A bibliography of the English language from the invention of printing to the year 1800: A systematic record of writings on English, and on other languages in English, based on the collections of the principal libraries of the world. Supplement: additions and corrections, Volume I-X - list of libraries - cumulative indexes. Leeds: The author.
  • Alston, Robin C. 1974. A Bibliography of the English Language from the Invention of Printing to the Year 1800: A Corrected Reprint of Volumes I-X, Reproduced from the Author's Annotated Copy with Corrections and Additions to 1973, Including Cumulative Indices. Ilkley: Janus Press.
  • Alston, Robin C. 2008. A Bibliography of the English Language from the Invention of Printing to the Year 1800: Addenda and Corrigenda (volumes I-X). Vol. XXI, part 1. London: Smith Settle Yeadon.
  • Anon. 'They That Are Born There Talk Good English': Hugh Jones Describes Virginia's Slave Society, 1724, Accessed 24 August 2010]
  • Austin, Frances. 2000. Daniel Fenning (?-1767). History of Reading News. vol. XXIII, no.2. [Accessed on 20 January 2011].
  • Bannet, Eve Travor (ed.). 2008. British and American Letter Manuals, 1680-1810. [Accessed on 18 June 2009]
  • Beal, Joan C. 2004. English in Modern Times: 1700-1945. London: Arnold.
  • Beal, Joan C., Jane Hodson, Richard Steadman-Jones and Carol Percy (eds) 2006. New Approaches to the Study of Late Modern English. Special Issue of Historiographia Linguistica 33. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Beal, Joan C., Camela Nocera and Massimo Sturiale (eds) 2008. Perspectives on Prescriptivism. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Beal, Joan. 1999. English pronunciation in the eighteenth century: Thomas Spence's Grand repository of the English language. Oxford: OUP.
  • Belanger, Terry 1982. Publishers and writers in Eighteenth-century England. In Isabel Rivers (ed.), Books and their Readers in Eighteenth-century England, 5-25. Leicester: Leicester University Press.
  • Biographical Dictionary of American Educators. 1978. Edited by John F. Ohles. Westport/London: Greenwood Press.
  • Bristol, Roger P. 1970. Supplement to Charles Evans' American bibliography [A chronological list, 1646-1800, of "not-in-Evans" items]. Charlottesville: published for the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia [by] University Press of Virginia.
  • Brown, Goold. 1851. The Grammar of English Grammars. New York: samuel S. & William Wood.
  • Cajka, Karen. 2003. The Forgotten Women Grammarians of Eighteenth-century England. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Connecticut.
  • COPAC. MIMAS service, The University of Manchester (UK). Funded by JISC, using records supplied by RLUK.
  • Crook, Ronald. E. 1966. A Bibliography of Joseph Priestley 1733-1804. London: The Library Association.
  • Cubberley, Ellwood P. 1919. Public Education in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press.
  • Dictionary of American Biography. 1934. Edited by D. Malone. New York: Charles Scribner.
  • Downey, Charlotte (ed.). American Linguistics 1700-1900, Scholar's facsimiles & reprints. Delmar, New York: Scholar's Facsimiles & Reprints.
  • ECCO = Eighteenth Century Collections Online. [Farmington Hills, Michigan] Gale Group.
  • ESTC = English Short Title Catalogue 1473-1800. The British Library Board.
  • Evans, Charles. 1903-59. American Bibliography: A Chronological Dictionary of all Books, Pamphlets, and Periodical Publications Printed in the United States of America from the Genesis of Printing in 1639 down to and Including the Year 1820. 14 volumes, with bibliographical notes. Vols. I-XII: Chicago: Privately printed for the author by the Blakely Press; Vol. XIII, by C.K. Shipton, and Volume XIV, Index, by R.P. Bristol: Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society. (See also Evans Digital Collection).
  • Evans Digital = Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800. Readex Microprint.
  • Feather, John. 1985. The Provincial Book Trade in Eighteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fens-de Zeeuw, Lyda. 2011. Lindley Murray (1745-1826), Quaker and Grammarian. PhD thesis, Leiden University.
  • Finegan, Edward. 1998. English Grammar and Usage. In Suzanne Romaine (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, 1776-1997, Vol. IV, 536-588. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fitzmaurice, Susan. 2000. Rhetoric, language and literature: New perspectives on English in the eighteenth century. Language Sciences 22(3), 223-229.
  • Gabrielson, Arvid. 1929. Professor Kennedy's 'Bibliography of Writings in English Language'. A Review with a List of Additions and Corrections. Studia Neophilologica 2, 117-168.
  • Garvin, Paul L. 1953. Review of 'On the History of Some Problems of English Grammar before 1800, by Ivan Poldauf'. Language29(4), 563-564.
  • Görlach, Mandfred. 2003. Topics in English Historical Linguistics. Heidelberg: Winter.
  • Görlach, Manfred. 2001. Eighteenth-century English. Heidelberg: C. Winter.
  • Gough, John. 1781. Memoirs of the Life, Religious Experiences, and Labours in the Gospel, of James Gough, Late of the City of Dublin, deceased. Compiled from his Original Manuscripts, by his Brother John Gough. Dublin: Robert Jackson.
  • Hans, Nicholas. 1951. New Trends in Education in the Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Howatt, A.P.R. 1991. A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kafker, Frank. 1997 [1971]. Encyclopaedia Britannica or, a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Preceded by The prospectus for the first edition. Volume I. With a New Introduction by Frank Kafker University of Cincinnati. Reprint.
  • Kennedy, Arthur G. 1927. A Bibliography of Writings on the English Language from the Beginning of Printing to the End of 1922. [Reprint 1961]. Harvard: University Press.
  • Knight, Sarah. 2003. Review of Linda C. Mitchell, 'Grammar Wars. Language as Cultural Battlefield in 17th- and 18th-century England'. The Renaissance Journal. 1(7). [Accessed in June 2006].
  • Koerner, E.F.K. 2008. Universal Index of Biographical Names in the Language Sciences. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Landrum, Grace W. 1939. The first Colonial Grammar in English. William & Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine XIX: 272-285.
  • Leonard, Sterling A. 1929. The Doctrine of Correctness in English Usage 1700-1800. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
  • Lexicon Grammaticorum: Who's Who in the History of World Linguistics. 1996. Edited by Harro Stammerjohann. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Lyman, Rollo Lavene. 1922. English Grammars in American Schools before 1850. Washington: Government Printing Office.
  • McKnight, George H. 1928. Modern English in the Making. New York & London: D. Appleton & Co.
  • Michael, Ian. 1993. Early textbooks of English: a guide. Swansea: Colloquium on Textbooks, Schools and Society.
  • Michael, Ian. 1970. English Grammatical Categories and the Tradition to 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Michael, Ian. 1987. The Teaching of English from the Sixteenth Century to 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Michael, Ian. 1991. More than Enough English Grammars. In Gerard Leitner (ed.), English Traditional Grammars: An International Perspective, 11-26. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Mitchell, Linda C. 2001. Grammar Wars. Language as Cultural Battlefield in the 17th and 18th century England. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Moran, Michael G. 1997. 'John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England'[pdf]. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (48th, Phoenix, AZ, March 12-15, 1997) 
  • Navest, Karlijn. 2008. Borrowing a few Passages: Lady Ellenor Fenn and her Use of Sources. In Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade (ed.), Grammars, Grammarians and Grammar-Writing in Eighteenth-century England, 223-243. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Navest, Karlijn. 2008. Ash's Grammatical Institutes and 'Mrs Teachwell's library for her young ladies. In Joan C. Beal, Camela Nocera & Massimo Sturiale (eds.), Perspectives on Prescriptivism (Linguistic Insights. Studies in Language and Communication 73), 59-82. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Navest, Karlijn. 2011. John Ash and the rise of the children's grammar (LOT Dissertation Series 278). Utrecht: LOT, Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.
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last updated on 21 June 2011

Electronic sources

  • Association of British Counties.
  • The British Library.
  • COPAC. Mimas service, based at the University of Manchester (UK). Funded by JISC, using records supplied by RLUK.
  • ECCO = Eighteenth Century Collections Online. [Farmington Hills, Michigan] Gale Group.
  • ESTC = English Short Title Catalogue 1473-1800. The British Library Board.
  • Evans Digital = The Evans Early American Imprint Collection. Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800. Readex Microprint.
  • The Evans Early American Imprint Collection.
  • ODNB = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2004. Oxford University Press. Online edition.


Dr Nuria Yáñez-Bouza
School of Arts, Languages and Cultures
University of Manchester 
Oxford Road 
M13 9PL


Dr María Esther Rodríguez-Gil 
Departamento de Filología Moderna 
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 
Pérez del Toro no. 1
35003 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Project e-mail: